In a new paper published in the Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Liat Levita, Emily Mayberry, Aneesa Mehmood and Markus Rebeur evaluated potential predisposing vulnerabilities and perpetuating factors among individuals with functional neurological disorder (FND) by using the novel Lifespan Negative Experiences Scale (LiNES), which assesses retrospective self-report of interpersonal trauma, negative affect, and relationship insecurity at three developmental stages: childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.The results from this study provide further support for the links between FND and trauma, negative affect, and insecure attachment. Recognition of these factors is likely to be important for treatment and stratification of important subpopulations in research. These findings provide new insights into the association between the timing of negative experiences and their effect, with LiNES emerging as a potentially useful measure for patients presenting with FND.

New Paper! Evaluation of LiNES: A New Measure of Trauma, Negative Affect, and Relationship Insecurity Over the Life Span in Individuals with Functional Neurological Disorder